Restoring a Fishery - With Dugongs
Contributed by Tim Hochgrebe
In an imaginative approach to fisheries renewal a Thai scientist is using
the dugong as the centerpiece of his campaign to restore fishing livelihoods and
Julian Cribb reports.
For ten years biologist Pisit Charnsnoh has battled to save the
dugong from extinction in Thailand's coastal waters. As he sees it, the
dugong's decline and the hardships suffered by small fishing villages
along the Thai peninsula stem from the same problem: the loss of coastal ecosystems.
His imaginative remedy is to teach the villagers to know and love the dugong,
then involve them in local projects to restore its coastal habitat, for the
benefit of the dugong itself, other marine species and the people who make their
living from the sea. For this project that is bringing benefits to the environment
and local people alike, Pisit Charnsnoh was chosen as an Associate Laureate
of the Rolex Awards for Enterprise 2004.
Charnsnoh graduated from Khon-Khaen University in 1969, determined to use his
newly acquired knowledge to help Thailand's rural poor. 'I didn't
want to work in a government office,' he says. 'I wanted to work
with the local people.'
In 1985 he moved south with his family to his wife's home village on the
Andaman Sea coast of Trang Province. There, he founded his own environmental
organisation, the Yadfon (Raindrop) Association. Yadfon's first initiative
was to involve fishing communities in restoring a 94-hectare mangrove forest.
In the past 50 years, half of Thailand's mangrove forests have been destroyed,
for timber or charcoal production or to make room for prawn farms.
Mangrove forests are vital elements of the ecosystems of the world's
coastal areas. By trapping nutrient-rich sediments from coastal rivers and streams,
mangroves sustain diverse communities of fish and crustaceans. Loss of the mangroves
increases sediment and nutrient inflows into coastal waters, upsetting the delicate
balance of a complex ecosystem.
In southern Thailand's clear inshore waters beyond the mangrove zone,
sunlight fuels the growth of lush seagrass pastures for grazing dugongs. They
also provide food and habitat for the fish, crabs, prawns and molluscs that
feed and sustain the economies of the local fishing villages. By absorbing residual
nutrients, seagrass also protects nearby coral reefs against overgrowth by algae,
creating the opportunity for tourism. But large trawlers fishing illegally in
the inshore zone have scoured the seabed, destroying seagrass and clouding the
water. The loss of the seagrass meadows, combined with treacherous floating
gill nets, has taken a heavy toll on the dugong.
The dugong, Dugong dugon, is one of three surviving species of an
ancient group of marine mammals, the Sirenia. Exclusively herbivorous, dugongs
grow to 3.5 metres, weigh 400 kilograms, and can live for up to 70 years. Females
do not breed until their second decade, pregnancy lasts 13 months and the young
may suckle for two years. To maintain a stable population, 95 per cent of adults
must survive each year.
Between 1979 and 1998, 75 dead dugongs washed up on the southern Thailand Coast - probably a fraction of the real toll. Most had drowned in gill nets.
A few were killed by large fishing boats or tourist vessels; others probably
succumbed to stress or starvation caused by noise, pollution and habitat destruction.
For the past 10 years, Charnsnoh and his five Yadfon staff have been working
with villagers to replant Trang Province's mangrove forests. 'The
mangrove forests were in poor condition, so people asked the government for
permission to manage them,' says Charnsnoh. 'Compared with nearby
mangrove forests managed by the government, they're getting better and
better. People are happy with these activities, and they're also protecting
the seagrass meadows in front of the mangrove forests, because they have learned from our seminars that large areas of seagrass bring them more fish and crabs.'
Villagers now mark out the seagrass pastures to keep commercial fishing boats
out - fishing is still permitted, but destructive practices like push-netting
are forbidden. Dugong numbers are increasing in the restored areas.
The dugong has become a symbol of the improving coastal environment of Trang Province but, for Charnsnoh, it is also a practical instrument for protecting
the coastal environment and improving people's lives.
Thai bureaucracy shows scant interest in the plight of coastal communities
because poverty is common in the region. But it heeds requests to protect the
vulnerable dugong - it is protected by four pieces of national legislation
and Thailand's signature on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species (CITES). So Charnsnoh has chosen the large marine mammal as the flagship for his two-year campaign to take Yadfon's conservation message to eight
other Thai provinces where dugongs survive.
He will use his Rolex Award to fund the campaign that aims to reach 15,600 villagers in 52 fishing communities and 5,800 students in schools and colleges. He plans to establish a national network of community groups and non-government associations that will work with government agencies to develop projects to protect mangroves and local seagrass beds for the dugongs benefit. He will use workshops and lectures by dugong experts to make villagers, students and the public aware of the dugong's plight.
'We help people to understand and love the dugong,' says Charnsnoh.
'They are then motivated to protect its habitat, and as the habitat improves,
the number of fish increases, and so people earn more income.'
The Rolex Awards
The Rolex Awards for Enterprise aim to encourage a spirit of enterprise in visionary individuals around the world, providing the financial support and recognition for projects that advance human knowledge and well-being.
The Awards are presented every two years in five areas: Science and Medicine, Technology and Innovation, Exploration and Discovery, The Environment and Cultural Heritage. However a project may be submitted in almost any field of endeavour, provided it contributes to the betterment of humankind. Anyone of any age, from any country or background is eligible to apply for an award.
Five Laureates, those who present the most exceptional projects, each receive US$100,000 and a specially inscribed, gold Rolex chronometer at an official awards ceremony. Five runners-up, the Associate Laureates, each receive $US35,000 as well as a steel-and-gold Rolex chronometer.
The 2004 Rolex Laureates are:
- Lonnie Dupre, USA
- Claudia Feh, France
- David Lordkipanidze, Georgia
- Teresa Manera de Bianco, Argentina
- Kikuo Morimoto, Japan
Applications for the 2006 Rolex Awards are now open and Australian applications are encouraged. Anyone may apply.
Information about the awards: www.rolexawards.com
Application kits from: ph 02 9251 8988.